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HomeIslamic Faith PrinciplesHeaven And Hell in Islamic Sources

Heaven And Hell in Islamic Sources

Paradise is one of the realm names where Muslims will live happily ever after in the hereafter. The concepts used by Allah in the Qur’an to express the abode of eternal happiness that He has prepared for Muslims are as follows: Paradise is the most used concept in verses and hadiths [1]
Adan means the heavens to live in [2]. Firdaws means a garden with vineyards [3]
Husna is where Allah will reward those who do good deeds in abundance [4]. Dar-us-Salam means a place that protects from material and spiritual distresses and troubles and is home to well-being. Dar-ul-Maqaam means the homeland to be lived in forever [5]. Adan and the Firdaws have a special significance among these concepts because these concepts refer to the whole or a particular part of heaven. For example, Hz. Mohammad (PBUH) said, “When you ask Allah (heaven), ask Him for Firdawsi. Indeed, it is the central and highest place of heaven. Above the Firdaws is the Throne of the Most Merciful.” [6]. Also, Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) stated that the Paradise of Adan is like a city, prophets will live there, and its buildings will be made of gold and silver bricks [7].

What is heaven like?
According to the Islamic faith, the life of Paradise is incomparably more beautiful than the life of this world. First of all, there is no death, sickness, quarrel, old age, or poverty. There is no limit to the treats offered to people [8]. In this borderless place, there are trees without thorns, banana trees with hanging fruits[9], and trees such as dates and pomegranates [10].
These trees will be zoomed in so that those who wish can easily collect them.[11]
Although there will be food and drink in the world in Paradise, they will not be like those on earth. It is stated in the Qur’an that although the wine of Paradise is drunk with pleasure, it will not cause drunkenness or discomfort to a person. [12] Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) described the life of Paradise as follows: “You will always be healthy and never get sick, you will live and die forever, you will stay young and never grow old, you will be in constant blessings, and you will not encounter difficulties. Also, there will be no trace of his infirmities and flaws in the world.” [13] The people of Paradise will not feel boredom, fatigue [14], grudges, and hatred. [15]

What will be the greatest blessing in heaven?
The greatest blessing that Muslims will get in Paradise is to see Allah. Allah points to this in the Qur’an with the verse, “On that day, some faces will shine with happiness looking at their Lord” [16].
What the beauties of heaven are like cannot be fully understood by our perceptions of the world. Allah has said in the Qur’an, “No one can imagine what surprising blessings are hidden for them in exchange for all the good deeds they have done that will be light to the eyes and heart.” [17].

What kind of place is hell?
According to the Islamic belief, Jahannam/Hell is an eternal world where people who have failed the test, those who do not believe in Allah, and those who associate others with Him will be sent.
Hell is expressed with seven concepts in the Qur’an.[18] These are as follows: Hell refers to the whole place of punishment in the hereafter.
Jaheem means flaming fire with a high temperature.[19] Sameer tells blazing fire and is generally used as a name for Hell.[20]
Lazar means the fire that scorches and peels the skins and burns in flames.[21] Hutamah means one who crumbles and breaks into pieces.[22]
Saqar is defined as a fire that does not leave anything from what is thrown into it and does not cease to burn again and again.[23]
Hawwiyah means an abyss, a bottomless pit, and an angry fire [24].
The verse “Indeed, the hypocrites are in the lowest level of Hell; You will never find a helper for them anymore” indicates that Hell also has layers [25]. These layers are separated according to the crime committed, and the punishment deserved.
“On that day, we will ask Hell: “Art thou fılled to the full?” It will shout out every time: “Are there any more (to come)?” As the verse indicates, Hell will have the capacity to take all the people who will be thrown into it without any limit. [26]
Hell consists mainly of material fire. The fuel of Hell is human and stones that have the property of burning. [27]
The characteristics of this fire are also described in the Qur’an as follows: This fire has a feature that rekindles towards extinction [28], envelops the body and scorches and peels the skin,[29] cooks the body, and divides it into pieces. Hz. Mohammad (PBUH) reported that this fire was seventy times more severe and burning than the fire in the world. [30]

Will everyone face the same punishment in hell?
Not everyone who is thrown into Hell will be sentenced to the same punishment because they did not commit the same crime. There, people will be given punishments equal to the crimes they have committed. Some of these people will be buried in the fire up to their ankles, some up to their knees, and some up to their waist, chest, or neck. [31] Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) stated that the person who will be sentenced to a minor punishment in Hell would wear shoes of fire, and his brain will boil from the heat of the shoes.[32]
In Islam, Hell is a place of punishment that will continue to exist forever. As a matter of fact, there are many verses in the Qur’an about how hell will last forever. Some of these are as follows: “Allah will show them except the way of Hell, to dwell therein forever. And this to Allah is easy.” [33] “To dwell therein for ever: no protector will they find, nor helper.” [34]

In Hell, there are angels of punishment (azab) whose duty is to meet the people who will enter here [35] and punish them. They are called “Demons” [36]. In the Qur’an, it is stated that the name of the angel who leads the demons is “Malik”[37]. These angels will have a harsh temperament [38], and those who will enter Hell will throw into Hell by force and dragging.[39] The descriptions of Hell in the Qur’an are mostly related to the nature and form of punishment. Therefore, little is known about the physical appearance of Hell.
The depictions of Heaven in Islam are beyond what one can imagine; On the other hand, the descriptions of Hell are expressed as more than all the sufferings that a person can suffer in this world. The nature of heaven and Hell in this respect shows how important it is to win or lose the test.

How does belief in Heaven and Hell affect people in the world?
According to the religion of Islam, the individual’s belief in heaven and Hell also regulates his life on earth. Because the individual is aware that the smallest good and evil done in this world will not remain unrequited.[ 40] He also makes his preferences and decisions with this awareness.
It is the Paradise that is mainly described in the Qur’an. In many verses, Allah has stated that if His servants choose to live a good and beautiful life, they will go to Paradise [41], but they will also be punished according to their choices [42]. A person has been held responsible for his words, actions, and preferences.

Who will go to hell?
Allah has stated in the Qur’an that He will punish those who do evil as much as they do, but He will reward those who do a good many times more [43]. Allah stated that he would write rewards for those who think of doing evil but do not do it because he does not prefer to do evil, and he will write only one sin for the one who does evil, but he will write rewards for those who think about doing good but cannot do it, and he will receive many times more rewards for those who do this best [44].
In Islam, a person who commits an evil act is given time to repent. Not every evil deed is punished immediately. Until the moment of death, a person can strive to atone for the sins he has committed. These indicate that it is more difficult to enter Hell than to enter Paradise.
Because those who will go to Hell are not those who make mistakes, but those who consciously insist on their mistakes.

[1] Furqaan, 15; Sajda, 19;Maaida, 65.
[2] Ra’d, 23; Nahl, 31.
[3] Muminoon, 11; Kahf, 107.
[4] Yunus, 26.
[5] Faatir, 35.
[6] Bukhari, Tawhid, 22; Jihad, 4.
[7] Bukhari, Tafsiru’l- Kur’an, 9/ 15.
[8] Zukhruf, 71.
[9] Waaqia, 28- 29.
[10] Rahmaan, 68.
[11] Haaqqa, 23; Insaan, 14.
[12] Saaffaat 45- 47; Muhammad, 15.
[13] Müslim, Cennet, 21- 22.
[14] Faatir, 35.
[15] A’raaf, 43.
[16] Qiyaama, 22- 23.
[17] Secde, 17.
[18] Hijr, 44.
[19] Baqara, 119; Maaida, 10; Hajj, 51; Shu’araa, 91.
[20] Nisaa, 10; Hajj, 4,Furqaan, 11; Faatir, 6.
[21] Ma’aarij, 15- 16.
[22] Humaza, 4- 7.
[23] Muddaththir, 26- 29, 42.
[24] Qaari’a, 9- 11.
[25] Nisaa, 145.
[26] Qaaf, 30.
[27] Baqara, 24; Anbiyaa, 98; Tahrim, 6.
[28] Israa, 97.
[29] Ma’aarij, 16.
[30] Müslim, Cennet, 30.
[31] Müslim, Cennet 32- 33.
[32] Bukhari, Rikak, 51; Müslim, İman, 361- 364.
[33] Nisaa, 169.
[34] Ahzaab, 65.
[35] Zumar, 71, Mulk, 8.
[36] Alaq, 18.
[37] Zukhruf, 77.
[38] Tahrim, 6.
[39] Dukhaan, 47.
[40] Zalzala, 7- 8.
[41] Baqara, 25; A’raaf, 42; Anfaal, 4; Tawba, 72; Ra’d, 22- 24; Hijr, 45.
[42] A’raaf, 53; Anfaal, 36- 37; Tawba, 34.
[43] An’aam, 160.
[44] Bukhari, Rikak 31; Müslim, İman 207, 259.